- Hvorfor er D&Ds scenariebøger ikke bedre? by Morten Greis Petersen suggests that the scenario writers of D&D do not have the experience to write good adventures, partially because of the differences in D&D editions and thereby breaks in what a good adventure is, instead using Paizo’s adventure paths as a model and creating linear adventures that do not consider the powers and power level of the characters. https://rollespil.blog/2023/01/27/hvor-er-dds-scenarieboger-ikke-bedre/
- NoD #136 — Creative brooding by Eero Tuovinen includes a theory of a game that can be recovered from Call of Cthulhu. https://www.arkenstonepublishing.net/isabout/2023/01/29/nod-136-creative-brooding/#1-mythos-investigation-1
- A taxonomy of roleplaying utterances v0.1 and follow-ups by Michael Prescott are an impressive classification of what people say when playing and in which order and analysis of some old school and Critical role play based on these. http://blog.trilemma.com/2023/01/a-taxonomy-of-roleplaying-utterances-v01.html , http://blog.trilemma.com/2023/01/update-some-analysis-with-whole.html and http://blog.trilemma.com/2023/01/rpg-transcript-analysis-critical-role.html.
- Two-player creativity is harder by Ben Robbins hypothesizes that games that rely on improvization and creativity work better with three players than with two. https://arsludi.lamemage.com/index.php/2758/two-player-creativity-is-harder/
- Anmeldelse av Trophy dark by Kaare Berg explains the design community the game comes from and the key rules. https://www.rollespill.info/2023/02/01/anmeldelse-av-trophy-dark/
- D&D An unexpected wedding… Et blik på av Morten Greis Pedersen fortel korleis eit ikkje-voldeleg senario og mordmysterium ikkje fungerer i (moderne) D&D. https://rollespil.blog/2023/01/21/dd-an-unexpected-wedding-et-blik-pa/
- Conversation: Reflections and dissections av Ron Edwards og Ivan fortel om fantasirollespel i dei gamle dagane og kva GNS og kreativ agens er. https://adeptplay.com/2018/04/24/conversation-reflections-and-dissections/
- On OGL, ORC, and an attempt at a timeline av Jukka Särkijärvi beskriv kva har skjedd mellombels med OGL. https://nitessine.wordpress.com/2023/01/21/on-ogl-orc-and-an-attempt-at-a-timeline/
- What is high-trust trad adventure design av Per Arne Kobbevik forklarer S. John Ross sitt begrep, som handlar om opne problem i senario. https://blog.indre-auge.studio/2023/01/22/what-is-high-trust-trad-adventure-design/
- Skenet roolipelikulttuurin vahvuutena av Sami Koponen fortel om nasjonale delkulturar i rollespillsmiljø og kva kan hende når dei møtast. https://efemeros.wordpress.com/2023/01/23/skenet-roolipelikulttuurin-vahvuutena/
- Role-playing: a narrative experience and a mindset, kirjoittajana Satu Heliö, asemoi roolipelaamista omana aikanaan oleelliselle peli vai tarina -akselille. Artikkeli kirjassa Beyond role and play, https://nordiclarp.org/w/images/8/84/2004-Beyond.Role.and.Play.pdf.
- The elf that is you: The failure of the character sheet in Dungeons & dragons, kirjoittajana Jeff Rients, kertoo miksi hahmolomakkeet usein ovat huonoja ja mitä asialle voisi tehdä. http://isuwriting.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Reints-Jeff-GWRJ-4.2-Spring-2014.-7-19.pdf
- Aktantmodell, kirjoittajana Lars Mæhlum, tiivistää Algirdas Julien Greimaksen mallin tarinoiden rakenteelle. https://snl.no/aktantmodell
- NoD #135 — Mythos investigation, kirjoittajana Eero Tuovinen, esittelee yhden pelin, jonka klassisesta Kutunluun kutsusta voi eristää. https://www.arkenstonepublishing.net/isabout/2023/01/15/nod-135-mythos-investigation/
- https://dice.camp/@rdonoghue/109636828333641117, kirjoittajana Rob Donoghue, erottelee pelien formaalit säännöt suositelluista hyvistä käytännöistä ja miettii, kannattaako hyviä käytäntöjä kirjoittaa säännöiksi.
- Making meaningful dungeons with cyclic dungeon generation, kirjoittajana Lars, esittelee kiinnostavan luolaston suunnittelumenetelmää. https://dicegoblin.blog/making-meaningful-dungeons-with-cyclic-dungeon-generation/
- The simulation dream by Tynan Sylvester discusses what to simulate and what not in digital games. https://www.gamedeveloper.com/design/the-simulation-dream
- Measuring board game distance by Matthew Stephenson, Dennis J.N.J. Soemers, Éric Piette and Cameron Browne reports clustering of (mostly classical) board games based on their mechanical similarity. https://arxiv.org/abs/2301.03913
- How can the use of digital games in mathematics education promote students’ mathematical reasoning? A qualitative systematic review by Erik Ottar Jensen and Charlotte Krog Skott classifies use of digital games into five themes: developing strategies, exploring an immersive environment, experimenting, game design and solving tasks. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40751-022-00100-7
- Why it’s rude to suck at Warcraft by Folding ideas takes a look at the instrumental play culture of World of warcraft and how it affects the game and its players. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKP1I7IocYU&t=4140s
- NoD #131 — Amber fever av Eero Tuovinen ser på Terningslaus Amber (engl. Amber diceless) fra perspektiv av skapende mål og også tilbyr justeringer til egenskapsreglene i spillet. https://www.arkenstonepublishing.net/isabout/2023/01/01/nod-131-amber-fever/
- Pelaajabarometri 2022 : Kohti uutta normaalia av Jani Kinnunen, Milla Tuomela og Frans Mäyrä dokumenterer finske spillevaner basert på omfattende data. Bordrollespill spilles regelmessig (minst én gang per måneden) av 1,4 % av befolkninga og i det heile av 4,2 % av befolkninga, med feilmargin av rundt 10 % (men med liknende tall fra eldre Pelaajabarometri-er, så den samlede feilmarginen blir mye mindre, gitt visse antakelser). https://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-03-2732-3
- An OSR preprint av Tommi Brander deler OSR i flere grupper basert på hvordan de spiller. https://ropeblogi.wordpress.com/2023/01/04/an-osr-preprint/
- Randomness and game design av Keith Burgun kritiserer tilfeldige utfall i abstrakte strategispill en spiller for å vinne. https://www.gamedeveloper.com/design/randomness-and-game-design
- D&D’s trope overlay av Sandra Snan gir to måter å ta til hensyn de mange overlappende klassene i modern D&D. https://idiomdrottning.org/trope-overlap
Jeff Rients discovered my preprint at https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/b2w36/. Some history: I wrote that during a couple of summers, updated, and ended up publishing the pre-print as updating it would have taken too much doing at the time, given the low prospects of getting the article published in a journal. So there it is, outdated already when published, but such is life. I decided to publish the pre-print for the following perspectives it includes:
- An academic look at OSR not based on nostalgia or equality with old D&D and its biases.
- Non-wrong use of GNS, which is surprisingly rare for all GNS is cited by academic rpg theorists.
- Using hobbyist theories as a lens to see at motivations and methods for playing.
- Writing down the wargame perspective on OSR.
Of these motivations, all but the last one still stand. The strange collection of cited games is because very few OSR games actually said anything about why or how to play them. This situation has improved in the mean time. The collection of blog posts and forum posts is a combination of what I knew, could find, and could cite in a useful manner. Some draft did have Oddysey’s post on D&D and combat, I believe, but it ended up being taken away in one of the phases of cleaning the reference list.
Were I to update the article, I would have to update the theory section (given William White’s book) and would now take a look at multitude of OSR methods and priorities of play, namely:
- Wargamey play, with Eero Tuovinen’s Muster and James Raggi’s Referee book as major sources. GNS gamist, GDS simulationist once a scenario is going, and ambiguous GDS when in the scenario negotiation or choice phase.
- Creative problem solving play, with Principia apocrypha, Chris McDowall’s works and Petri Leinonen’s Them deeper bones as key references. Possibly GNS gamist, GDS gamist when revealing challenges (telegraphing traps for example), GDS simulationist and dramatist when resolving what the characters do (simulationist when following the fiction, dramatist when explicitly rewarding creative solutions).
- Maybe the middle school game master storytelling tradition could be extracted from some Dragonsfoot and maybe Basic fantasy roleplaying adventures, or maybe Dragonsfoot discussions, but it would require work. GNS simulationist, GDS dramatist.
- The freeform tradition that is branded FKR, or the NSR folk, might be doing other stuff, but I would have to dive in and see; it has been a while. Maybe character-centric freeform play could be isolated from there.
Doing all of this up to academic standards does not feel worth the trouble for me at the moment, so this blog post will have to carry the torch.
A one-shot usually has custom characters and an elaborate set-up. Playing one tends to take from one session (three to five hours) to maybe three sessions, as they tend to not be done in time, and depending on the precise scenario.
A vignette is shorter, more of an (extended) scene than an elaborate situation, typically for 2-3 players and a game master. It might be over in a couple of rolls or require use of extended conflict resolution systems, all based on how the game goes.
The troll and the cottage
- Situation: A hungry troll has found a lone cottage in the woods. The resident might not appreciate this.
- Participants: one game master, 2+ players
- Character 1: a troll
- Character 2: someone living in the cottage
- Further characters: more residents of the cottage, or why not a traveller or another troll
- Beliefs: Choose beliefs that allow a variety of outcomes; maybe the troll is hungry, sees humans as weak, and is lonely.
- Gameplay: We start as the troll finds the cottage, maybe making some wise and scouting rolls to determine details, and various tests on the part of the resident to figure out if they have sheep and what condition is the cottage in. The game ends when the situation is resolved; maybe the troll sneaks in, snatches a sheep and the resident fails to track it, and we are done. Or maybe we have a duel of wits and then a fight after that. This is simple, low stakes play. We play to find out how the situation goes and what the characters make of it, with nobody having a preplanned plot arc in mind.
Generally, these vignettes are not an exercise in optimization; pick a character you have played before or burned before that suits the situation, or if you have none, burn a new one. Go for simple and obvious over complicated and powerful. There are no lifepath or exponent limits or recommendations over these guidelines. Starting artha is what the character had when last seen; otherwise, 3 fate and 2 persona. Tell the other participants at least roughly what you are playing, but do not coordinate carefully.
The point of reusing characters is to see a dear character once more, or to burn a new one if one likes that. Maybe use this as a way of playing a prelude and feeling out a character, or have a character whom you want to play when committing to a campaign is not really an option. Here you can still get some character advancement and similar joys of seeing the character grow.
Best practices for reuse: Do not use a character that ended up dead. Do take a bit of downtime if you have a character who fits, but not directly, so as to get them into the place. Whatever happens to the character here, carry it over to further games. This increases the stakes and excitement of the vignette.
The spider and the archmage
- Situation: A web-wyrd great spider has found out where a human archmage lives and wants to learn their secrets.
- Participants: one game master, 2+ players
- Character 1: the arcane spider
- Character 2: the archmage (or are they?)
- Further characters: companions, grogs or creations of the archmage
- Gameplay: Has the spider actually found an archmage, or are they mistaken? If they have, is the gap in communication too much; is the interloping spider killed as the monster they are, or do they manage to establish contact with the archmage and be taken seriously, or alternatively manage to sneak in and steal what they desire?
The purpose of the vignettes is to have gaming with a small social footprint, making participation easier and more lightweight. Playing together is a fine way of getting to know each other and creating shared experiences, thus also allowing stronger communication and more learning. These should also be a nice way of learning the rules system better, both the character burning, the core rules and the optional rules.
There are also further pedagogical goals: to hold a character lightly and to go into a situation without expectations of a particular character arc or other run of events. Also, to not fear or try to force extended conflicts: I encourage to use them if and only if they happen naturally in the gameplay, just to build up routine for them. Since the gameplay format is short, there should be time for an extended conflict.
The lovers’ duel
- Situation: An illegal duel between two lovers of the same beloved.
- Participants: one game master, 2+ players
- Character 1: a lover
- Character 2: a lover
- Further characters: The beloved. A representative of the forces of order out to stop the duel.
- Beliefs: Allow for a variety of outcomes, and have conflicting beliefs.
I encourage using the normal rules for artha rewards (with the game master’s or the group’s preferred house rules and interpretations). Also, have a trait vote, but remember that trait vote is not an advancement mechanic, but rather a change mechanic.
Here is how I would do it: after the session, everyone in the group should nominate each character for a trait or two just by trait name. For each one that roughly matches a trait the character already has, they get fate. If there was something the character clearly should have had but did not, they should get that as a character trait. If there is a trait they could have played but did not at all or acted against, remove the most blatant of such. This can also apply to die and call-on traits, though maybe they first go through demotion into a character trait. For earning die or call-on traits, only consider them if they were particularly noteworthy events of play and maybe also require alignment with a previous character trait in addition, or at least some BIT.
The two wolves
- Situation: An ancient forest; a spirit hunter and a ghost of the deeping wood meet.
- Participants: one game master, 2+ players
- Character 1: a spirit hunter
- Character 2: a ghost
- Further characters: allies of the previous
- Beliefs: Allow for a variety of outcomes, and have conflicting beliefs. This need not be a duel to death, though that, too, is a possibility.
Many of these vignettes are player character against player character, and hopefully can also teach how to deal with such constructively: play out your character fully, and let the consequences come.
As for consequences, remember that if you have a persona for will to live, you are not in danger of death, should you not want it. It is hard to get treatment in this type of scenario; a circles roll, even if unconscious, might allow it, but often you are due some nice wounded-type traits in the trait vote, I expect. Though maybe note everything always is worth dying for?
The lost orc
- Situation: The glorious victory against the elves turned out less gloriously for you and your dark friend: you are alone and lost. What now?
- Participants: one game master, 1+ players
- Character 1: the lost orc
- Character 2: the wolf mount
- Further characters: an elf or a random encounter
- TRPGでのロールプレイにおいてプレイヤーキャラクターを創作することの意味 : キャラクターのジェンダーと歴史についての設定を中心に, kirjoittajina 五十嵐 梨々花 ja 青山 征彦, kertoo muutaman japanilaisen roolipelaajan suhtautumisesta pelaajahahmojen sukupuoleen ja jatkuviin hahmoihin, joita pelataan useassa seikkailussa ja jotka saattavat ikääntyä samaa tahtia pelaajan eli tosimaailman kanssa. https://jarps.net/journal/article/view/38
- GM’s log: Court of opinion episode (part 2) preparation, kertojana Runeslinger, käsittelee Tähtimatka-pelin (engl. Star trek) valmistelua, tiettyjen teemojen tavoittelua ja kohtausrakenteen ja tapahtumien kulun suunnittelun välttämistä. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEGw-KQHX48&list=PLZfuKgeD5fl5kODiiRaumSatFGJr5NnLh&index=63
- Metareflection, kirjoittajana Hilda Levin, erottelee pelaamisen tiedostamista elopeleissä ja kokoaa erilaisia siihen liittyviä tekniikoita. https://nordiclarp.org/2020/04/30/metareflection/
- Night’s Black Agents – The Zalozhniy Quartet del 1 by Morten Greis Petersen tells how a Night’s black agents -adventure organizes information in terms of the skill that reveals information, while the rules make sure that someone always has the skill. https://rollespil.blog/2022/12/19/nights-black-agents-the-zalozhniy-quartet-del-1/
- Depicting the human relationship to nature and culture: Transactionality and the homo economicus by V. P. J. Arponen looks as the mechanistic and goal-oriented nature of (board) games and links to it to various understandings of development of human society in terms of economical thinking. At the end the article consider soft incentives, like the aesthetic values of particular cards, as an interesting way to potentially escape the capitalistic and colonialistic nature of many games. It would be interesting to consider free wargames, with their often non-explicit and highly asymmetric goals for different players, in this light. https://analoggamestudies.org/2022/12/depicting-the-human-relationship-to-nature-and-culture-transactionality-and-the-homo-economicus/
- The magic circle as occult technology by Chloé Germaine tells about magic and magic circles in British larps. https://analoggamestudies.org/2022/12/the-magic-circle-as-occult-technology/
- When worlds collaborate: The style of early tabletop role-playing games by Stefan Huddleston describes sexism and racism depicted in early issues of Dragon magazine, Gary Alan Fine, Tunnels and trolls and Traveller. The author also claims a connection to the general loss of power among middle class white males of the period. https://analoggamestudies.org/2022/12/when-worlds-collaborate-the-style-of-early-tabletop-role-playing-games/
- 自閉スペクトラム症児のTRPG活動における会話の促進とゲームマスターの役割 by 原田 裕介, 加藤 浩平 and 藤野 博 describes how the gameplay of a tabletalk roleplaying game by school pupils at autism spectrum changed in the course of five sessions. https://jarps.net/journal/article/view/40
- OSR rules families by Marcia B. classifies various old school renaissance games in terms of mechanical features. https://traversefantasy.blogspot.com/2022/12/osr-rules-families.html
- ゲームマスターの力量マップ : プロフェッショナルの要件 by 藤林 啓一郎 discusses Japanese attempts at certifying skilled game masters and building a competency map for them. https://jarps.net/journal/article/view/35
- At the head of the table : the TRPG GM as dramatistic agent by William J. White, Nicolas LaLone and Nicholas J. Mizer looks at a few different understandings of what a game master is and does, offering a very necessary contrast to all the articles that tacitly assume a unified game master in all of roleplaying. https://jarps.net/journal/article/view/39
- History of bonus and malus dice by Tommi Brander lists some early implementations or influential examples of bonus and malus dice. https://ropeblogi.wordpress.com/2022/12/23/history-of-bonus-and-malus-dice/
Bonus dice: when you roll dice, and add a certain number of extra dice, roll them, and take away a number of dice equal to how many you added, but you take away the worst dice. Malus dice is the same, except you take away the best dice, not the worst ones. Whether best and worst correspond to higher or lowest or something else depends on the particulars of the dicing system.
This is equivalent to rerolls in case of binary (for example success/failure) dice, but otherwise bonus- and malus dice are more powerful than rerolls.
- AD&D 4d6 drop lowest from first edition? In that case PHB 1978. Maybe from some earlier Dragon article, who knows. In any case, not explicit about using a bonus die there, but with the variant of 5d6 drop two lowest, someone might have written down this formulation, too, at some point.
- Over the edge, 1992 takes the best of several dice and uses both bonus and malus dice, also as situational modifiers.
- Legend of five rings, 1997, roll and keep. Does anyone know if the game has explicit ideas of adding or removing bonus dice, or just manipulates the die pool size and grabs the number of kept dice from some source?
- Dying earth 2001
- Savage worlds, 2003, wild card die is a bonus die.
- The shadow of yesterday 2004 explicit use, also malus dice; more than one die at base.
- Whitehack 2013 has at most one bonus or malus die and uses Hero wars (blackjack) dicing: try to not roll above the score, but as high as possible.
- D&D 5, 2014, popularization of advantage/disadvantage, limited to only a single bonus or malus die at a time.
The above is not a comprehensive list by any means, but hopefully contains most of the original and influential titles. Please let me know of any mistakes or titles to add.